Basic Immunology
and Disorders of The Immune System
Francisco G. La Rosa, MD
Pathologist (AP/CP)

 
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: The students will be expected to understand and discuss:

1. The organs and cells of the immune system.
2. The basic concepts of inflammation, including phagocytosis and complement.
3. The basic concepts of specific B- and T-cell responses, including cytokines and the significance of the histocompatibility complex molecules.
4. The mechanisms of immunologically medicated tissue injury, including hypersensitivity reactions, transplant rejection and autoimmune disorders.
5. The inherited and acquired immunodeficiency diseases, with an emphasis on the immunopathology of AIDS.

I. Organization of the Immune System

A. Introduction
B. Ontogeny of the Immune system
C. Cells of the Immune System:

1. Polymorphonuclear cells:
    -Neutrophils
    -Eosinophils
    -Basophils
2. Macrophages
3. Dendritic and Langerhans’ cells
4. T-lymphocytes
5. B-lymphocytes
6. Natural killer (NK) cells

II. Basic Concepts of Inflammation

A. Phagocytosis
B. Complement
C. Cytokines
D. Histocompatibility system: Significance of the HLA Complex

III. Immune mechanisms of tissue injury

A. Type I: Anaphylaxis
B. Type II: Cytolytic antibody
C. Type III: Immune complex mediated
D. Type IV: Cell mediated

IV. Autoimmune Diseases

A. Self-tolerance
B. Loss of self-tolerance
C. Genetic factors in Autoimmunity
D. Microbial agents in Autoimmunity
E. Systemic lupus erythematosus
F. Rheumatoid arthritis
G. Spondyloarthropathy
H. Sjögren Syndrome
I. Systemic sclerosis
J. Inflammatory Myopathies
K. Mixed connective tissue disease

V. Immunosuppression and immunodeficiencies

A. Immunosuppression:

1. Physical
2. Chemical and biological
3. Action of Immunosuppressive agents

B. Primary Immunodeficiencies

1. Bruton’s disease
2. Isolated deficiency of IgA
3. Common variable immunodeficiency
4. Phagocytic cell defects:
    - Chronic granulomatous disease
    - Myeloperoxidase deficiency
    - Chediak-Higashi syndrome
    - Job’ syndrome
    - Lacy leukocyte syndrome
5. DiGeorge’s syndrome
6. Chronic mucocutaneous candidasis
7. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
8. Nezelof’s syndrome
9. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
10. Ataxia telangiectasia
11. Genetic deficiencies of the complement system

C. Secondary immunodeficiencies

1. Measles, leprosy, tuberculosis
2. AIDS

VI. Neoplasias and other disorders:

A. Amyloidosis
B. Plasma cell dyscrasias

 
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