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Parathyromatosis in hyperparathyroidism.
Recurrent hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy may present a difficult diagnostic problem. A rare etiology is parathyromatosis (multiple nodules of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue scattered through the neck and mediastinum) due to spillage of otherwise benign parathyroid tissue during surgery. We present a case of recurrent hyperparathyroidism and parathyromatosis due to tissue spillage during surgical removal of probable double adenomas, a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Thus, parathyromatosis must be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism, distinguished from parathyroid carcinoma by histologic criteria. The surgeon must be careful of parathyroid spillage during surgery, even of benign tumors of the parathyroids.
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